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Role of polysomnography (PSG)?

What is the role of polysomnography (PSG)?

The PSG is the gold standard test for diagnosis of sleep disorders. The patient is admitted overnight in a sleep laboratory under the care of a sleep technologist.  Various monitors are connected to the patient and they continuously record among others:

  • Duration and stage of sleep depth
  • Blood pressure and heart rate
  • Oxygenation levels
  • Apnoeic episodes
  • Muscle tone
  • Chest movements
  • Periodic leg movements
  • Loudness of snoring

Treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

What is the Treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

The first step in the treatment of OSAS is management of the modifiable risk factors. Patients with excess weight must undertake necessary measures to cut their weight. Cessation of alcohol ingestion and cigarette smoking should also be considered in patients with OSAS.

Use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is the gold standard in the management of OSAS. This acts as a pneumatic stent that prevents the airway from collapsing during inspiration.

Surgery of the collapsing part of the upper airway offers a more permanent solution to patients with moderate to severe OSAS. Our ENT surgeons have been performing surgery to patients with OSAS with very successful results.

How do you make diagnosis of a sleep disorder?

Like any other medical condition, the diagnosis is based on the history given by the patient (parents if patient is a child) and/or the sleep partner. In some patients there may be no reported nocturnal symptoms but certain daytime symptoms such as excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, poor concentration and irritability among others may suggest an underlying sleep disorder. We employ questionnaires such as Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Stop-Bang to help screen patients with possible sleep disorder and OSAS respectively. Physical examination by the consulting doctor is important to confirm or rule out any underlying neurological, pulmonary or ENT condition.

However, to be able to make an objective diagnosis of OSAS and certain other sleep disorders the patient will then need to be admitted for an overnight test, also known as a polysomnography in a sleep laboratory.

What are the complications of inadequate sleep in adults?

Sleep deficiency can arise from sleep deprivation or from specific sleep disorders.  Certain groups of people are more at risk of sleep deprivation and include; shift workers, those having long work hours or multiple jobs, school attendees with early schedules, alcohol /drug users among many others.

Studies have showed that people with sleep deprivation or sleep disorders are at a high risk of getting involved in road traffic accidents that can be fatal or cause life- long disabilities. They also have a high risk of developing the following diseases;

  1. Heart diseases and heart failure
  2. High blood pressure
  3. Strokes
  4. Diabetes
  5. Obesity
  6. Depression and mood disorders
  7. Poor memory
  8. Erectile dysfunction
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